Consensus or Conflict? China and Globalization in the 21st Century


Author:Wang Huiyao and Alistair Michie

Release Date:August, 2021

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This open access book brings together leading international scholars and policy-makers to explore the challenges and dilemmas of globalization and governance in an era increasingly defined by economic crises, widespread populism, retreating internationalism, and a looming cold war between the United States and China. It provides the diversity of views on those widely concerned topics such as global governance, climate change, global health, migration, S&T revolution, financial market, and sustainable development. 

This is a truly unique book. Never before has such an authoritative group of essayists come together to develop deep new thinking about global governance that is relevant to current shared global challenges.Our motivation for creating this book draws on the spirit and core culture of CCG. The first element of this book springs from the concept of “globalization,” which is not just part of our name but a deeply held belief that all of us at CCG share, we believe that a globalized world is a core component for the creation of a peaceful and sustainable world order that contributes to the mutual benefit of all mankind. The COVID-19 pandemic has unleashed forces that pose great challenges to the realization of a peaceful and sustainable world order, but it was also a major catalyst that motivated us to collaborate and co-edit this book.


Currently, a ‘flat, fused’ globalized world is racing ahead of the ‘rules-Based’ order, just as Thomas L. Friedman, Pulitzer winner and New York Times columnist said in a virtual forum with CCG on March 29, 2021: “That is the central governing challenge today. How do you govern the world that is that fast, fused, deep and open? That is our challenge.”


We gave our eminent writers the task of expressing their views about the options for governance and globalization in the twenty-first century. We challenged them to explain how consensus, rather than conflict, could be a way forward for mankind. As a response, the majority of our writers chose to analyze why the current ‘rules-based world order’ needs reform. Overall, most authors stressed that the need for change is extremely urgent.


35 essays were contributed by Pascal Lamy, Joseph S. Nye Jr., Edmund Phelps, Lord Jim O’Neill, Wendy Cutler, Peter Maurer, H. E. Shaukat Aziz, Grzegorz W. Kołodko, Guangyao Zhu, Yafei He, Jeffrey Lehman, Denis F. Simon and other 26 authors. We classified all these pieces into seven parts:

1. Policies for Changing the ‘Rules Based World Order’
2. Policies to Create Public Health and Humanitarian Governance Reform
3. Governance to Nurture the Next Generations Through Education, Exchange and Migration
4. Global Governance Trends and Dealing with the Digital and Biosphere Revolutions
5. Global Governance Perspectives from Africa, Asia, North America and Europe
6. Lessons from History for the Next Steps in Global Governance and Trends
7. ‘Soft Power’ in Governance, the Burden of Debt and the Crisis of Communications

In this book, leaders and scholars spell out why these perils pose a stark choice for the human race. They stress how any path that leads to conflict increases the risk of catastrophe. In this context, the common thread is that a consensus must be reached about the future of our world. Our writers have put forward many ideas and potential new policies, reflecting their vision of what this consensus should be and how it is the only way forward for the human race. For example, Pascal Lamy suggests that the world should not revolutionize the current system, and it is essential that a new order serves not only the established powers, but a greater number of the newly emerging nations. He concludes that globalization can continue to contribute to the betterment of mankind. Prof. Joseph S. Nye Jr. proposes that the US should create a “COVID Marshall Plan” to strengthen global healthcare systems. Such leadership could enhance US ‘soft power’ and by 2030 have a similarly significant geopolitical effect as the original Marshall Plan. Edmund Phelps suggests that if China is to make the leap from a middle-to-high-income country, then China must develop indigenous innovation and continue improving its institutions.


We believe that, given the sentiments expressed by our essayists, and the turmoil visible in the world in 2021, the publication of this book is extremely timely.


We wish to once again express our profound gratitude to all our authors. It is our very sincere wish that all of our readers are inspired by the diverse ideas expressed in this book. We believe our authors have provided the ingredients for a ground-breaking book. We hope that their thoughts will stimulate a fruitful dialogue on the future of global governance, which is so urgent and vital in today’s world, to meet the challenges mankind currently faces.


We also express our special thanks to Sir Danny Alexander, Sir Angus Deaton, Rana Mitter and other 8 distinguished leaders and scholars, for generously providing their endorsements after reading through the whole book.


Consensus or Conflict? We leave you to consider the many problems the world faces with a few words from Thomas L. Friedman, who so poignantly asked: “How do you govern a world that is that fast, fused, deep and open?”


Book Review


“Multilateral co-operation is critically important to address the many challengeswe face, from tackling the pandemic, dealing with climate change and fosteringsustainable development. This collection of essays is a very useful contribution forthose seeking to understand our rapidly changing and globally connected economiesand societies.”

Sir Danny Alexander, Vice President, Asian InfrastructureInvestment Bank (AIIB) and former Chief Secretary, H M Treasury


“If anybody is in doubt that we all live in a global, interconnected world thenconsider the impact of global warming, covid, social media etc. To live in this world,we must embrace free and open dialogue between peoples and nations. This collectionexplains some Why’s and How’s. A must read to get a balanced view of the worldtoday.”

Sir Peter Bonfifield, CBE, FREng, Chairman, NXP Semiconductors

“If we are to negotiate the next decade in peace, we cannot just trade with Chinaand compete geo-strategically. We need to understand her far better. This collection of essays from across the political spectrum is a major contribution to thatunderstanding.”

Sir Andrew Cahn, former CEO of UK Trade and Investment

“The rise of China is leading to shifts in the global landscape not seen since theIndustrial Revolution that started in Europe. Anyone who wants to understand, andthus benefifit from these changes, needs to delve deep into China’s millennial longexperience of governing a complex state. This exceptional and powerful collectionof essays holds the key to that new understanding.”

Tim Clissold, author of theglobal best-seller, ‘Mr China’

“We wish the book every success and hope very much that it contributes to amore balanced view of China in the world.”

Sir Angus Deaton, winner of the 2015Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics and Anne Case, Professor of Economicsand Public Affairs Emeritus at Princeton University

“The world is changing, of that there is no doubt. Within the frighteningly flfluidglobal ecosystem of governance, capital markets and business, the place of a pure,rules based, approach could be seen as out of step with the changes already upon usand those about to descend. China’s place in this emerging new world order is littleunderstood. Any contribution which assists in addressing this misunderstanding isto be welcomed.”

Jon Geldart, Director General, Institute of Directors


“Managing our relationships with an emerging Chinese superpower with verydifferent values, history and political systems to our own, yet huge shared economicinterests, is likely to be one of the great challenges for the medium-sized Westerndemocracies, like the UK, over the next three decades. This collection of essayswill be an important contribution to that debate”.

Lord Philip Hammond, formerBritish Chancellor of the Exchequer

“The Atlantic community is being driven herd-like towards some simplisticassumptions about China, the apparent threat it poses and the choices we are beingasked to make. Such analysis does not get us very far which is why this book is animportant antidote and an invaluable guide to a more rational and realistic future—of course we need to mitigate the risk that China poses the west, but we also need tounderstand where our interests are aligned with Beijing.”

Lord Peter Mandelson,Chairman, Global Counsel; former European Trade Commissioner and BritishFirst Secretary of State

“This is an original, wide-ranging and stimulating set of essays. The relationshipbetween China and the west is one of the most important in contemporary geopolitics,and these authors give us a range of productive and thoughtful ways to address itsfuture.”

Rana Mitter, Professor, History and Politics of Modern China, University of Oxford and author of ‘Forgotten Ally: China’s World War II, 1937–1945’

“The world is not flflat … for nations and economies to succeed and stay safe inthis increasingly interconnected world, we must be willing to embrace change andbe more tolerant of cultures and ideologies which appear different. Global climatechange is undoubtedly a crisis which needs all nations to work together if we are toprotect the lives and livelihoods of future generations … therefore reaching a globalconsensus on issues of this magnitude is essential. This book provides a compellinginsight into China, the world’s second biggest economy, and the role it is likely to playin the future … as such this is a must-read publication.”

Sir John Peace, Chairmanof the Midlands Engine and former Chairman of Standard Chartered, Experianand Burberry

“The world, and the west in particular, needs to recognise that we are movingto a different global dynamic, economically, politically and militarily, and that wehave to engage with China in a balanced and pragmatic manner leaving ideologyat the door. This is essential if we are to work together to deal with the enormouseconomic, climatic and health challenges the world faces in the short and long term.This book should help build understanding in this essential dialogue.”

Sir MikeRake, Former President of the Confederation of British Industry (CBI)

“For anyone wanting to understand what role China will play in the emergingworld, as Western global domination weakens, this book is essential reading. Itprovides a soundly based framework for understanding the political, economic andmilitary forces at work in the transition.”

John Russell, Chairman, Henderson FarEast Income Limited

Contributors(in alphabetical order by family name)

Amitav Acharya

Chair, Transnational Challenges and Governance of UNESCO and Distinguished Professor, American University

Robert D. Atkinson

Founder and President, Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF)

H. E. Shaukat Aziz

Former Prime Minister, Pakistan

Jean Christophe Bas

CEO, The Global Compass

Daniel A. Bell

Dean, School of Political Science and Public Administration at Shandong University and Professor at Tsinghua University

David Blair

Senior Economist

Kerry Brown

Professor of Chinese Studies and Director of the Lau China Institute at King’s College, University of London, UK

Sir Keith Burnett

Chair, Academic Council for Schmidt Science Fellows at Oxford University

Ronnie C. Chan

Chair of Hang Lung Properties Limited and Chairman of Asia Society Hong Kong Center

Wendy Cutler

Vice President, Asia Society Policy Institute (ASPI)

Hermann Hauser

Chairman, Amadeus Capital, Cambridge UK and co-Founder, ARM Holdings

He Yafei

Former Vice Minister, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China; Distinguished Professor, Peking University

Martin Jacques

Author of the global best-seller ‘When China Rules the World‘ and formerly Senior Fellow at the Department of Politics and International Studies, Cambridge University, UK

Masahiro Kawai

Representative Director, the Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia; Professor Emeritus, University of Tokyo

Parag Khanna

Founder & Managing Partner, FutureMap

Grzegorz W. Kolodko

Professor, Kozminski University; Former Deputy Premier and Minister of Finance, Poland

Pascal Lamy

President, Paris Peace Forum

Jeffrey Lehman

Inaugural Vice Chancellor, New York University Shanghai

Yuanli Liu

Professor and Dean, School of Health Policy and Management, Peking Union Medical College

Carlos Lopes

Honorary Professor, University of Cape Town

Kishore Mahbubani

Distinguished Fellow, Asia Research Institute of National University of Singapore

Peter Maurer

President, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)

James G. McGann

Director, Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program, Wharton School and School of Arts and Sciences; Senior Fellow, Fels Institute of Government, University of Pennsylvania

Lu (Mabel) Miao

Founder & Executive Secretary General of CCG

Alistair Michie

Secretary General of the British East Asia Council; Chair, International Council of the Center for China and Globalization (CCG)

Peter Nolan

Professor and Director, China Centre, Jesus College, Cambridge University, UK

Joseph S. Nye Jr.

University Distinguished Service Professor, Emeritus and Former Dean of Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government

Lord Jim O’Neill

Chairman, Royal Institute for International Affairs

Edmund Phelps

Winner of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Economics, Director of the Center on Capitalism and Society at Columbia University

Sir Anthony Seldon

Former Vice-Chancellor, University of Buckingham

Denis F. Simon

Professor of China Business and Technology at Duke’s Fuqua School of Business, Former Executive Vice Chancellor of Duke Kunshan University(DKU)

Sir Martin Sorrell

Founder & Executive Chairman, S4 Capital, London, UK

Huiyao (Henry) Wang

Founder and President of Center for China and Globalization (CCG)

Vladimir Yakunin

Head of the State Policy Department, Faculty of Political Sciences, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia

Zhu Guangyao

Counsellor of the State Council, Former Vice Minister of Finance of China