Since the 1990s, the rapid development of economic globalization has greatly mobilized the enthusiasm of all economies to participate in global economic development. During this process, talent flows around the world and has become an important measure of a country’s comprehensive competitiveness. Arrtracting international talents and encouraging them to participate in innovation and entrepreneurship has become a key to slove China’s problems, such as labor shortage and the lack of technological innovation, as well as to achieve sustainable economic and social development. In order to reflect the development situation and characteristics of China’s Regional International Talents Competitiveness, and to analyze the problems in the process of enhancing China’s Regional International Talents Competitiveness, CCG has edited this blue book, called “Report on China’s Regional International Talents Competitiveness (2017)”. By promoting the enhancement of China’s Regional International Talents Competitiveness, this book aims at promoting the overall level of Competitiveness of international talents in China, achieving the goal of “Pooling the world’s talents to work for us”. This book consists of six parts, which are the General Report, Theory Report, Regional Reports, Special Reports, Policy Reports, and the Appendix.
The General Report analyzes the current situation of international talents competition from a macro perspective, pointing out how China formed a catch-up situation in international talents competition throught policy innovations in the case of low international talent proportion. On the basis of research on regional talents competitiveness and international talents competitiveness, home and abroad, this report establishes an index system to measure China’s regional international talents competitiveness from the aspects of international talent scale, structure, innovation abilities, policy innovations, development and living environment. This paper analyzes each of the six aspects, both separately and as a whole in China’s 31 provinces. Based on the analysis, policy recommendations are given to enhance China’s regional international talents competitiveness, including strengthening the top design of international talent introduction policy, encouraging national innovation areas to play a leading role, and promoting the construction of urban soft power, etc.
On the basis of defining the scope of international talent research, the Theory Report identifies the methods of studying international talents competitiveness, and explains the index system to do regional international talents competitiveness research.
The Regional Reports analyze the international talents competitivenss of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangdong and Sichuan. After pointing out the achievements and characteristics of international talent development in each area, it reviews each one’s performance on the international talents competitiveness index and gives policy recommendations on promoting this region’s international talents competitiveness.
The Special Reports can be divided into three sections based on the three independent research papers it consists. The first section carries out an analysis on regional competitiveness of international students in China. Drawing on the factors key provinces and cities have in regional competitiveness, this section offers suggestions on how to promot the development of Study in China. The second section analyzes the regional competitiveness of foreign experts in China. Through case studies about cities with good performance on foreign expert introduction, recommendations are given to solve foreign talent introduction problems. The third section is an analysis of Zhongguancun Science Park. From Zhongguancun’s experience and a comparision with the Silicon Valley, this paper points out the advantages Zhongguancun has, given by its policy highlights and innovations.
The Policy Reports have three parts according to the three separate reports it has. The first part analyzes China’s policy breakthroughts in attracting international talents, and summarizes the development status and problems of international talents in China, including international students, returned overseas students, foreign Chinese and non-Chinese foreign talents. Policy recommendations are given to speed up the construction of a talent system that is globally competitive at the end. The second part collects speeches of experts and scholars from Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Talent Integration Development Forum. Analyzing the current situation of talent integration development in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, it explores a new model to share regional international talents. The third part studies the current situation, policy development and existing problems of international talents development cooperation, and puts forward suggestions on the establishmemnt of international talent cooperation organizations to promote regional talent flow and cross-region innovation.
Last but not least, the Appendix sorts out some innovative policies and their latest development according to the needs of the text. For reader’s reference, those innovations include: policies about foreign students working in Beijing, Shanghai’s list of institutions and programs on Sino-foreign cooperation in undergraduate education, policies about foreign students working in Shanghai, the main contents of “Five Unifications” in Tianjin’s policy about the integration of foreigner’s entry permit and work permit in China, 13 Special Talent Policies and its latest progress in Zhongguancun Science Park during 2013 and 2014, the hightlights of 10 New Deals for Talents in Zhongguancun, and the basic situation of Intenational Organization for Migration and International Labor Organization.
CCG and SWUFE’s Institute of Development Studies co-established an index model to assess China’s regional competitivenesson attracting overseas talents from six dimensions – popualtion size, structure, innovation, policy, development and living conditions, supported by 13 secondary indices and 36 tertiary indices.
Based on the model, the report compiled a ranking list of the most-preferred places in China to foreign talents. Futhermore, by comparing the situation in China’s 31 province-level regions(Taiwan, Macau and Hong Kong excluded), the report mapped out policy measures to improve China’s regional and national competitiveness to recruit more global talents.
Here the key highlights of the report are as follows:
● China’s overall global talent competitiveness still lags behind many developed countries.The proportion of international workers in China is far below the world average. In 2015, only 0.06% of the country’s population were foreigners, while the worldwide average proportion was 3.3%.Shanghai ranks the highest among all the Chinese cities evaluated according to 2017 report. Even so, it only attains 65.17 out of 100 in global talent competitiveness, followed by Beijing, Guangdong, and Jiangsu, all of which are the most economically developed regions in China.
Scores of composite index in different regions within China
● Geographically,foreign talents are very unevenly spreaded in China, as the gap between Shanghai, the first place in the rankings,and Shanxi, the last one, reaches 0.8 while the 1 is set to be the ceiling number. Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin are the top three most favorite cities for foreign students, while Guangdong, Shanghai and Jiangsu are the first-tier cities which accommodatemost foreign experts.
The index of international talent population across China
●In terms of the quality of recruited global population, there is no much gap between different provinces or regions. Anhui and the western regions score higher in global talent eudcation degree structure for having more foreign experts on scientific and technology research with strong academic background. Jiangsu, Guangdong, and Shanghai score the highest in global talent occupation structure for providing foreign workers room to develop their long-term career.
The structural index of international talent across China
●Guangdong ranks the No.1 in terms of international talent innovation, because the foreign workers there are foscused on innovation industries and activities, while the western region also has great potential in this regard. Shanghai, on the contrary, scores low on this index, because most international talents there are working in the financial industry, instead of innovation industries such as IT or high-end manufacturing.
Innovation index of international talent for Chinese province-level regions
●The eastern coastal regions have more friendly international talent recuitment policies, while China’s mid and western region lags behind on it. Jiangsuranksfirst on this index list, followed by Beijing, Zhejiang, and Guangdong. With respect to international talent recruitment policy innovation, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangdong score higher, as they all have been rolling out policies to reform entry and exit regulatory system to facilitate high-level international talents’ their entrepreneurship and innovation activities in China.
Policy index of international talent across China
●Sharp margins exist between China’s coastal and inland region over creating a talent cultivation environment for foreign workers. Shanghai obtains a full score on this index. With extensive access to global economy and strong international background, Shanghai has become a hub for forign trade and MNC headquarters. However, most regions still lack strength in building appropriate surroundings for foreign talents.
Development index of International talent for Chinese regions
●Guangdong is selected by foreign talents as the most popular place to live, and China’s midwest also has great potential in attracting foreign talents with its better environment and living conditions. Guangdong, Jiangsu, Beijing, Shandong and Shanghai rank the top 5 provinces/cities respectively for providing the best social security and services to foreign talents, such as healthcare and children’s education.
Living index of international talent across China
●Based on the findings above, the report proposed to improve the work of international talent recruitment institutionally in order to attract more foreign talents. The measures such as es-tablishing a governing entity specifically for international talent management, expanding in-ternational talent recruitment policies that have been proved effective in pilot programs, and enhancing regional competitiveness for international talent through improved natural envi-ronment and living conditions were provided in the bluebook.
BI General Report
B.1 Research on China’s Regional International Talents Competitiveness
Wang Hui-yao, Miao lv, Zheng Jinlian, and Li Qing
Abstract: In the context of economic globalization, talent flows around the world; international talents competitiveness has become an important measure of a country’s economic vitality, innovation ability, and comprehensive competitiveness. Since the Reform and Opening Up, China has actively participated in economic globalization, its comprehensive national strength and world influence has been rising rapidly. However, during the international talents competition, China is still at a disadvantaged place. By studying the background of international talents competition, this paper builds an evaluation system for China’s regional international talents competitiveness, and uses the system to analyze and rank the regional international talents competitiveness of China’s 31 provinces. From international talent scale, structure, innovation abilities, policy innovations, development and living environment, this paper analyzes China’s Regional International Talents Competitiveness both separately by each index and as a whole for each province. Based on the analysis, relevant recommendations are given in aspects such as strengthening the top design of international talent introduction policy, encouraging national innovation areas to play a leading role, and promoting the construction of urban soft power.
Keywords: Economic Globalization, International Talents Competitiveness, China, Regional International Talents Competitiveness
BII Theory Report
B.2 Illustration on the Index System of on China’s Regional International Talents Competitiveness
Research Team of China’s Regional International Talents Competitiveness
Abstract: This report is an introduction on the book’s statistical research system and model. It defines the research scope of regional international talents competitiveness, gives a brief overview of the research methods of regional international talents competitiveness, and gives a detailed description on the research’s index system from five aspects, including guiding ideology, basic principle, evaluation system, evaluation model, and evaluation index and weight.
Keywords: International talents, Region, Competitiveness, Index System
BIII Regional Reports
B3 International talents Competitiveness Analysis of Beijing
Li Qing, Chen Xiao-xiao
Abstract: As China’s political center, cultural center, international communication center, and science & technology innovation center, Beijing has gathered a large number of international talents because of its innovative talent attraction policies, good opportunities for talent development, encouraging environment for innovation and entrepreneurship, as well as international living conditions. Based on International talents Competitiveness Index, this report analyzes Beijing’s international talents in its scale, structure, innovation capabilities, policy innovations, development environment and living conditions. According to the analysis above, policy recommendations were given to improve Beijing’s international talents competitiveness, including building a public service government, enhancing environment competitiveness by improving air quality, and promoting talent integration of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region.
Key words: International Talents Competitiveness, Beijing, Regional International Talents Competitiveness
B4 International talents Competitiveness Analysis of Shanghai
Miao Lv, Zheng Jin-lian, and Chen Xiao-xiao
Abstract: Proceeding to be one of the international centers for economic, finance, trade and shipping, Shanghai has strengthened its attraction to international talents by well-founded top-level talent attraction policy design, open environment for foreign investment, solid foundation for foreign trade development, and perfect public service system for international talents. Based on International talents Competitiveness Index, this report analyzes Shanghai’s international talents in its scale, structure, innovation capabilities, policy innovations, development environment and living conditions. According to the analysis above, policy recommendations were given to improve Shanghai’s international talents competitiveness, including devoting greater efforts to attract overseas top talents and innovation teams, strengthening the construction of pioneer parks for returned overseas students, improving the living conditions for international talents, as well as establishing a scientific evaluation mechanism for competency and performance assessment of international talents.
Keywords: International Talents Competitiveness, Shanghai, Regional International Talents Competitiveness
B5 International talents Competitiveness Analysis of Guangdong
Tan Xiang-ning, Yin Ya-ni, Zhong Chang-xiu, and Zhan Li-zhu
Abstract: With the development of knowledge economy, transnational talent flow has become an important part of the world’s population flow. According to World Migration Report 2014, North-South migration trend, which represents for migration from developed countries to developing countries, has become increasingly apparent. As the second biggest economy in the world, China or will meet the best historical opportunity to attract international talents. In recent years, governments at all levels in China has attached great importance to talents, brought forward talent development strategies to satisfy the needs of economic and social development, and actively built talent systems that are internationally competitive. Xi Jinping, the CPC General Secretary, emphasized on many important occasions that: “The introduction of foreign talent and intelligence is an important part of China’s opening up, and is an important strategic policy that we must insist for a long time.” As the frontier of China’s reform and opening-up, Guangdong is the main distribution center for international talent flow. With the help of geographical and regional innovation capabilities, as well as comprehensive advantages from economic development, Guangdong actively attracts international talents to provide intelligence service in the province. This chapter will focus on analyzing the general situation, and achievements, of international talent development in Guangdong, from perspectives on international talent scale, structure, innovation, policy, development and living conditions, etc. Based on the analysis, it gives recommendations or improvement.
Keywords: Guangdong, International Talent, Competitiveness
B6 International talents Competitiveness Analysis of Sichuan
Abstract: In China, big cities in the East Cost, such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen, have been recognized as centers for international talent introduction. Those cities’ factors to attract international talents, such as advanced economy, open and flexible talent attraction policies, international and diversified cultural environment, have caught many attentions and in-depth analysis in investigation and study. This chapter, on the other hand, will put its focus on western China and thoroughly analyze Sichuan’s competitiveness in international talent introduction and development. After introducing the general development situation of Sichuan’s international talents and the achievements brought by talent attraction programs in Sichuan’s main cities, this report evaluates Sichuan’s regional international talents competitiveness from six aspects, including international talents’ scale, structure and innovation capabilities, as well as policy innovations, development environment and living conditions for them. Based on the evaluations above, policy recommendations were given to improve Sichuan’s international talents competitiveness.
Keywords: Sichuan, International Talents Competitiveness, Regional Competitiveness
BIV Special Reports
B7 Regional Competitiveness Analysis on Study in China
Miao Lv, Zheng Jin-lian, and Wu Fei-yi
Abstract: As an important part of international talent introduction, Study in China has become a significant point for the enhancement of international talents competitiveness. Based on summaries about Study in China’s current situation and regional competitiveness indexes, this report analyzes the difference in regional competitiveness among five provinces/cities, including Beijing, Shanghai, Zhejiang and Sichuan. According to the above analysis, policies recommendations are given to promote Study in China’s development, as well as to enhance China’s international talents competitiveness. Among the recommendations are: expand university’s right to conduct Study in China programs, enhance Study in China’s regional competitiveness by integrating regional features, and form agglomeration advantages by strengthening regional cooperation in education.
Keywords: Study in China, Foreign Students, Regional Competitiveness, International Talents Competitiveness
B8 Regional Competitiveness Analysis on Foreign Experts Working in China
Wang Hui-yao, Li Qing, and Wang Jian-fang
Abstract: From 2001-2015, China has made great progress in foreign expert introduction. However, due to distinct regional competitiveness, foreign experts’ distribution has a big difference in the West and East region. According to rankings from the Most Attractive Chinese Cities’ for Foreigners, this article conducts three case studies on city’s attractiveness for Shanghai, Beijing and Hangzhou. Based on results from the case studies, this report not only points out the problems China had in foreign expert introduction, but also gives some recommendations on how to strengthen the ability to attract foreign talents, including innovating the talent introduction model, establishing a talent information platform, and build a social security system compatible with international standards, etc.
Keywords: Foreign Experts, Regional Competitiveness, Foreign Talent Introduction
B9 Experience on International Talent Development from Zhongguancun Science Park
Zheng Jin-lian, Dong Qing-qian, Zhu Hua, and Wang Jian-fang
Abstract: 2016 is the sixth year for Zhongguancun Science Park. After six years’ development as the first pilot zone on talent management reform in the nation, Zhongguancun Science Park has become the largest international talent aggregation zone with five years’ development. In 2013, the CPC Political Bureau held its ninth collective learning conference in Zhongguancun Science Park, where the CPC General Secretary Xi Jinping brought up that the goal for Zhongguancun is to built ‘a science and technology innovation center with global influence’. Overall, Zhongguancun’s talent internationalization has been in the forefront of the country. This is not only embodied in foreign high-level talent attraction policies, but also the innovation on talent development mechanism and the construction of innovation and entrepreneurship environment for talents. Built on a summary about Zhongguancun’s achievements on aggregating international talents, this chapter will analyze the highlights of Zhongguancun’s talent policies, especially those relevant to international talents, to provide some reference for talent attraction in other regions.
Keywords: Zhongguancun, Pilot Zone on Talent Management Reform, International Talent
BV Policy Reports
B10 Prior to Carry and Try in Innovation Aggregation Zones, Promoting Breakthroughs in Regional International talents Policies
Wang Hui-yao, Miao Lv, Zheng Jin-lian, and Zhu Hua
Abstract: The International Talent is the leading force in the economic globalization. In recent years, the CPC and the state leaders pay attention on the “Talent”, in order to attract more International talents, Public Security Ministry rolled out Exit-Entry policies pilot program relied on the parks in Shanghai, Beijing, Fujian, Guangdong and so on to establish more open, practical and competitive international talent competition system. Policies mainly focused on groups of Foreign Students, Nationals with Chinese Origin, Highly qualified individuals, which break through from the aspects of the Visa, Residence Permit and Permanent Residence. This article stated current immigration policy reform situation, and analyzed the problems of related policies, then gave some suggestions for the next step policy reform, which could help to attract more talents and gather them together in China.
Keywords: International Talents, Exit-Entry Policy, Immigrants, Foreign Students，Foreign Nationals with Chinese Origin.
B11 Talent Development Integration in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Exploring New Models for Regional International Talent Sharing
Dong Qing-qian, Wang Jian-fang, and Chen Xiao-xiao
Abstract: The Coordinated Development Strategy of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei is a major national strategy for China’s regional development. As an important part of these three regions’ coordinated development, the talent integration strategy has naturally become the focus of attention of all sectors of the community. From 2014 onwards, Center for China and Globalization has organized and participated three of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Talent Integration Development Forum. In these three forums, experts and scholars from all walks of life, talent workers, and business representatives have put forward many insightful and innovative policy recommendations for three-region’s talent development integration strategy. This chapter excerpts speeches from experts and scholars on the topic of “Innovative Development and Reference for Talent Integration of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei”, in the second Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Talent Integration Development Forum on December 11, 2015. Hope that through the recommendations of these experts and scholars to further deepen the system reform of talent development in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, to get rid of three-region’s obstacles to talent development integration, and to maximize the utility of three-region’s talents with the provision of intellectual support.
Key words: Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Talent, Integrated Development
B12 Building International Talent Cooperation Organizations, Speeding Up Regional Flow for International Talents Effectively
Wang Huiyao, Dong Qing-qian and Wang Jian-fang
Abstract: In today’s world, population mobility has speeded up, and talent competition, centered on high-level talents, not only is faced up with competition between different regions, but also has been expended into a competition between countries and even the whole world. Since the disorderly competition of international talents seriously restricts the role of international talents, building a globally competitive talent system will effectively improve the overall strength of regional development and promote the progress of regional economic and social development. From the perspective of international talent development, this report analyzes the status quo and the problems of international talent cooperation, and suggests that building international talent cooperation organizations would be an effective way to achieve regional talent flow and effective innovation of talents.
Keywords: International Talents, Talent Competition, Regional Innovation